Travel and Tourism Courses

The latest development in technology and the introduction of travel and tourism course in India has fulfilled the desire of billions of people to explore the world. This has resulted in a booming demand of tours and travel professionals in diverse service sectors. India itself is one of the favored destinations of many people for it having heritage of one of the oldest civilizations and for its aura and cultural diversity. The long-term career opportunities in the travel & tourism industry have always been strong whereas the short-term outlook is strong enough to ensure a secure career. A career in travel and tourism deserves to be opted for its diverse job profiles in various sectors including travel agencies, Airlines, and many other governmental organizations dealing with tourism.

The present advancement in universities and colleges has led to many courses in this field such as a Bachelors Degree course in Airlines, Tourism & Hospital Management, Bachelor of Tourism Administration, BTM (Hons), PGD in Tourism and Travel, and many other quality courses. Career aspirants who desire to pursue a career in Tourism can have the options from public as well as private sector. The public sector can offer you jobs at various levels in state tourism board or the central tourism department. There are few other courses as well that can enable you to earn a lucrative job in the tours and travel industry. These are listed below:

• Bachelor of Tourism Studies
• PG Diploma Course in Tourism Studies
• PG Program in Travel and Tourism
• M.A. in Tourism Management
• Master of Tourism Management

And the institutes offering these courses are as follows:

• Indian Institute of tourism and Travel Management
• Tezpur University, Assam
• Andhra University, Andhra
• Indira Gandhi National Open University, etc.

The eligibility criteria for taking admission in bachelors course is to clear your higher secondary education while PG course requires you to carry a graduation degree and a maximum age of not more than 28 years. The duration of the course depends on the level of course such as 6 months, I year and 3 years. Selection process passes through an entrance test held by the institute itself. In order to clear these entrance exams, the candidate is advised to brush-up his/her knowledge with reference to history, culture, geography, and places of tourist attraction in India. Some institutes also provide you the option of Distance Learning courses in Tourism and Travel management at degree levels, certificate level, PG Diploma level, and PG degree level, etc. These distance learning institutes may include Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU), Karnataka Open State University, Kota Open University, and many more.

Tourism Courses in UK – For International Exposure!

Why should one choose to study tourism courses in UK?

Before answering this question, let’s look at the travel & tourism sector. This sector is full of glamour and travel! One gets to experience a different slice of life every day! Moving over to the financial bearings of this sector, well Tourism is one such field which remains afloat even when the world economy is sinking down in depression!

Travelling is one privilege which people don’t give up on soon. Whether it is for social or business purposes, tourism industry is always bustling with activity! Jobs never dry up in this hospitality sector. Thus, more and more students are becoming inclined towards this sector.

Now tourism courses in UK facilitate you with the golden opportunity of studying in one of the most influential parts of the world. One can feast their eyes on sites like Buckingham Palace, Green Park, Big Ben etc. It also opens up reams of opportunities for you in the form of excellent work place trainings and jobs! The course curriculum followed at UK colleges is in sync with international standards. A student graduated in travel & tourism from UK will find it easier to work in any global organization!

The internationally recognized degrees and diplomas add much more value to your CV than you can imagine! In addition there is abundance of opportunities in UK itself. London, one of the most bustling cities of the world is the capital of UK. The PSW visa that you get along with your student visa allows you a 2 year work permit in UK after the completion of your course. You can use that to work in a renowned hotel or corporation of London and skip many levels in your career graph!

Topics covered in tourism study programme of UK
• airline/flight & passenger safety,
• compilation of attractive holiday packages,
• association amongst customers, anti-terrorism
• business profit increasing methods
• computerized reservation system
• agent management techniques
• marketing & selling techniques

Skills acquired after doing your course from UK
• improved communication skills
• fluency in more than one foreign language
• strategic marketing skills

History of Travel & Tourism

2000 years Before Christ, in India and Mesopotamia

Travel for trade was an important feature since the beginning of civilisation. The port at Lothal was an important centre of trade between the Indus valley civilisation and the Sumerian civilisation.

600 BC and thereafter

The earliest form of leisure tourism can be traced as far back as the Babylonian and Egyptian empires. A museum of historic antiquities was open to the public in Babylon. The Egyptians held many religious festivals that attracted the devout and many people who thronged to cities to see famous works of arts and buildings.

In India, as elsewhere, kings travelled for empire building. The Brahmins and the common people travelled for religious purposes. Thousands of Brahmins and the common folk thronged Sarnath and Sravasti to be greeted by the inscrutable smile of the Enlightened One- the Buddha.

500 BC, the Greek civilisation

The Greek tourists travelled to sites of healing gods. The Greeks also enjoyed their religious festivals that increasingly became a pursuit of pleasure, and in particular, sport. Athens had become an important site for travellers visiting the major sights such as the Parthenon. Inns were established in large towns and seaports to provide for travellers’ needs. Courtesans were the principal entertainment offered.

This era also saw the birth of travel writing. Herodotus was the worlds’ first travel writer. Guidebooks also made their appearance in the fourth century covering destinations such as Athens, Sparta and Troy. Advertisements in the way of signs directing people to inns are also known in this period.

The Roman Empire

With no foreign borders between England and Syria, and with safe seas from piracy due to Roman patrols, the conditions favouring travel had arrived. First class roads coupled with staging inns (precursors of modern motels) promoted the growth of travel. Romans travelled to Sicily, Greece, Rhodes, Troy and Egypt. From 300 AD travel to the Holy Land also became very popular. The Romans introduced their guidebooks (itineraria), listing hotels with symbols to identify quality.

Second homes were built by the rich near Rome, occupied primarily during springtime social season. The most fashionable resorts were found around Bay of Naples. Naples attracted the retired and the intellectuals, Cumae attracted the fashionable while Baiae attracted the down market tourist, becoming noted for its rowdiness, drunkenness and all- night singing.

Travel and Tourism were to never attain a similar status until the modern times.

In the Middle Ages

Travel became difficult and dangerous as people travelled for business or for a sense of obligation and duty.

Adventurers sought fame and fortune through travel. The Europeans tried to discover a sea route to India for trade purposes and in this fashion discovered America and explored parts of Africa. Strolling players and minstrels made their living by performing as they travelled. Missionaries, saints, etc. travelled to spread the sacred word.

Leisure travel in India was introduced by the Mughals. The Mughal kings built luxurious palaces and enchanting gardens at places of natural and scenic beauty (for example Jehangir travelled to Kashmir drawn by its beauty.

Travel for empire building and pilgrimage was a regular feature.

The Grand Tour

From the early seventeenth century, a new form of tourism was developed as a direct outcome of the Renaissance. Under the reign of Elizabeth 1, young men seeking positions at court were encouraged to travel to continent to finish their education. Later, it became customary for education of gentleman to be completed by a ‘Grand Tour’ accompanied by a tutor and lasting for three or more years. While ostensibly educational, the pleasure seeking men travelled to enjoy life and culture of Paris, Venice or Florence. By the end of eighteenth century, the custom had become institutionalised in the gentry. Gradually pleasure travel displaced educational travel. The advent of Napoleonic wars inhibited travel for around 30 years and led to the decline of the custom of the Grand Tour.

The development of the spas

The spas grew in popularity in the seventeenth century in Britain and a little later in the European Continent as awareness about the therapeutic qualities of mineral water increased. Taking the cure in the spa rapidly acquired the nature of a status symbol. The resorts changed in character as pleasure became the motivation of visits. They became an important centre of social life for the high society.

In the nineteenth century they were gradually replaced by the seaside resort.

The sun, sand and sea resorts

The sea water became associated with health benefits. The earliest visitors therefore drank it and did not bathe in it. By the early eighteenth century, small fishing resorts sprung up in England for visitors who drank and immersed themselves in sea water. With the overcrowding of inland spas, the new sea side resorts grew in popularity. The introduction of steamboat services in 19th century introduced more resorts in the circuit. The seaside resort gradually became a social meeting point

Role of the industrial revolution in promoting travel in the west

The rapid urbanisation due to industrialisation led to mass immigration in cities. These people were lured into travel to escape their environment to places of natural beauty, often to the countryside they had come from change of routine from a physically and psychologically stressful jobs to a leisurely pace in countryside.

Highlights of travel in the nineteenth century

· Advent of railway initially catalysed business travel and later leisure travel. Gradually special trains were chartered to only take leisure travel to their destinations.

· Package tours organised by entrepreneurs such as Thomas Cook.

· The European countries indulged in a lot of business travel often to their colonies to buy raw material and sell finished goods.

· The invention of photography acted as a status-enhancing tool and promoted overseas travel.

· The formation of first hotel chains; pioneered by the railway companies who established great railway terminus hotels.

· Seaside resorts began to develop different images as for day-trippers, elite, for gambling.

· Other types of destinations-ski resorts, hill stations, mountaineering spots etc.

· The technological development in steamships promoted travel between North America and Europe.

· The Suez Canal opened direct sea routes to India and the Far East.

· The cult of the guidebook followed the development of photography.

Tourism in the Twentieth Century

The First World War gave first hand experience of countries and aroused a sense of curiosity about international travel among less well off sector for the first time. The large scale of migration to the US meant a lot of travel across the Atlantic. Private motoring began to encourage domestic travel in Europe and the west. The sea side resort became annual family holiday destination in Britain and increased in popularity in other countries of the west. Hotels proliferated in these destinations.

The birth of air travel and after

The wars increased interest in international travel. This interest was given the shape of mass tourism by the aviation industry. The surplus of aircraft and growth of private airlines aided the expansion of air travel. The aircraft had become comfortable, faster and steadily cheaper for overseas travel. With the introduction of Boeing 707 jet in 1958, the age of air travel for the masses had arrived. The beginning of chartered flights boosted the package tour market and led to the establishment of organised mass tourism. The Boeing 747, a 400 seat craft, brought the cost of travel down sharply. The seaside resorts in the Mediterranean, North Africa and the Caribbean were the initial hot spots of mass tourism.

A corresponding growth in hotel industry led to the establishment of world-wide chains. Tourism also began to diversify as people began to flock alternative destinations in the 70s. Nepal and India received a throng of tourists lured by Hare Krishna movement and transcendental meditation. The beginning of individual travel in a significant volume only occurred in the 80s. Air travel also led to a continuous growth in business travel especially with the emergence of the MNCs.

Sarvajeet Chandra writes on issues that are usually brushed under the carpet, or are too everyday-ish for high street strategists. He writes on making strategic plan robust, how to execute strategy well and other tactical issues for everyday business success.